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References

Historical References
  • Sear, J.W., C. Prys-Roberts, and K.C. Phillips, Age influences the minimum infusion rate (ED50) for continuous infusions of Althesin and methohexitone.Eur J Anaesthesiol, 1984. 1(4): p. 319-25 -
  • Child, K.J., et al. Metabolism and excretion of CT1341 in the rat.in Steroid Anaesthesia.1972. Royal College of Physicians, London
  • Jurox, Jurox Pharmacovigilance report JX9604-SR004.2005. Records on File
  • Mesens, J.L., P. Putteman, and P. Verheyen, Pharmaceutical applications of 2-hydroxypropyl-beta-cylcodextrin., in New trends in cyclodextrins and derivatives., D. Duchene, Editor. 1991: Paris. p. 369-407.
  • Brewster, M.E., K.S. Estes, and N. Bodor, An intravenous toxicity study of 2-hydroxypropyl- β-cyclodextrin, a useful drug solubilizer, in rats and monkeys.Int J Pharm, 1990. 59: p. 231-243. -
  • Brewster, M.E., K.S. Estes, and N. Bodor, Development of a non-surfactant formulation for alfaxalone through the use of chemically-modified cyclodextrins.J Parenter Sci Technol, 1989. 43(6): p. 262-5 -
  • Child KJ, C.J., Dis B, Dodds MG, Pearce DR, Twissell DJ., The pharmacological properties in animals of CT1341--a new steroid anaesthetic agent.Br J Anaesth, 1971. 43(1): p. 2-13 -
  • Phillipps, G.H., Structure-activity relationships in steroidal anaesthetics.J Steroid Biochem, 1975. 6(5): p. 607-613 -
  • Cocker, J.D.,et al., Action of some steroids on the central nervous system of the mouse. Synthetic Methods.J Med Chem, 1964. 8(4): p. 417-425. -
  • Robertson, J.D. and W. Williams, Studies on the clinical and pathological effects of hydroxydione. Anaesthesia, 1961. 16(4): p. 389-401. -
  • P’An, S.Y.,et al., General anesthetic and other pharmacological properties of a soluble steroid, 21-hydroxypregnanedion sodium succinate.J Pharmacol Exp Ther, 1955. 115(4): p. 432-441
  • Selye, H., Correlations between the chemical structure and the pharmacological actions of the steroids.Endocrinology, 1942. 46: p. 116-121
  • Selye, H., Anaesthetic effects of steroid hormones.Proceedings of the Society for Experimental Biology, 1941
Alfaxan® Research References
  • Comparison of pain on injection during induction of anaesthesia with alfaxalone and two formulations of propofol in dogs, Michou et al, Vet Anaesth Anal -
  • A comparison of anaesthetic recoveries in cats following induction with either alfaxalone or ketamine and diazepam, Gieseg et al, 2013, NZVJ -
  • Induction of anaesthesia for canine caesarean section with alfaxalone, Reproductive Biology, 2013 -
  • Vettorato E. Prolonged intravenous infusion of alfaxalone in a cat. Vet Anaesth Analg 09/13;40:551–2. -
  • Seebacher, F. and C.E. Franklin, Redistribution of blood within the body is important for thermoregulation in an ectothermic vertebrate (Crocodylus porosus).J Comp Physiol B, 2007. 177(8): p. 841-8.
  • Leece, E.A., N.M. Girard, and K. Maddern, Alfaxalone in cyclodextrin for induction and maintenance of anaesthesia in ponies undergoing field castration.Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia, 2009. 36(5): p. 480-484 -
  • Keates, H., Induction of anaesthesia in pigs using a new alphaxalone formulation.Vet Rec, 2003. 153(20): p. 627-8 -
  • Grint, N.J., et al. A comparison of two doses of alfaxalone used for intravenous induction of anaesthesia in rabbits. in Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists Autumn Meeting.2007. Leipzig, Germany -
  • Goodwin, W.A., et al., The pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of the injectable anaesthetic alfaxalone in the horse.Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia, 2011. 38(5): p. 431-438 -
  • Gil, A.G., et al., Heart and respiratory rates and adrenal response to propofol or alfaxalone in rabbits Veterinary Record, 2012. 170(17): p. 444. -
  • Brodbelt, D.C.,et al., The risk of death: the confidential enquiry into perioperative small animal fatalities.Vet Anaesth Analg, 2008. 35(5): p. 365-73 -
  • Patten, B., et al., RD9604.03/06 The Safety of Jurox Alfaxan®-CD Anaesthetic Injection in dogs. 2000, Jurox in house
  • Patten, B., et al., RD9604.03/01 The Safety of Alfaxalone-Cyclodextrin Complex in cats.1998, Jurox in House
  • Whittem, T. and K. Pasloske, JX9604.03-E013 The in-vitro metabolism and clearance of the neurosteroid, alfaxalone, by cat and dog hepatocytes at concentrations of 1, 5, 10 and 100 mg/L. 2005, Jurox In House Report
  • Whittem, T., et al., The pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of alfaxalone in cats after single and multiple intravenous administration of Alfaxan®at clinical and supraclinical doses. J Vet Pharmacol Ther, 2008. 31(6): p. 571-9 -
  • Zaki, S., K. Ticehurst, and Y. Miyaki, Clinical evaluation of Alfaxan®-CD(R) as an intravenous anaesthetic in young cats.Aust Vet J, 2009. 87(3): p. 82-7 -
  • Psatha, E., et al., Clinical efficacy and cardiorespiratory effects of alfaxalone, or diazepam/fentanyl for induction of anaesthesia in dogs that are a poor anaesthetic risk.Vet Anaesth Analg, 2011. 38: p. 24-36. -
  • Murison, P.J. and Martinez Taboada, F. Effect of propofol and alfaxalone on pain after ovariohysterectomy in cats Vet Rec., 2010. 166(11): p. 334-335 -
  • Mathis, A., et al., Comparison of quality of recovery from anaesthesia in cats induced with propofol or alfaxalone.Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia, 2012. 39(3): p. 282-290 -
  • Martinez Taboada, F. and P.J. Murison, Induction of anaesthesia with alfaxalone or propofol before isoflurane maintenance in cats.Veterinary Record, 2010. 167(3): p. 85-89 -
  • Maddern, K., et al., Alfaxalone induction dose following administration of medetomidine and butorphanol in the dog. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia, 2010. 37(1): p. 7-13. -
  • Jimenez, C.P., et al., Evaluation of the quality of the recovery after administration of propofol or alfaxalone for induction of anaesthesia in dogs anaesthetized for magnetic resonance imaging. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia, 2012. 39(2): p. 151-159 -
  • Jansen, K.S. and J.J. Uilenreel, A comparison between alfaxalone and propofol continuous rate infusions in a total intravenous anaesthesia protocol for canine surgical patients.2009, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine - University of Utrecht
  • Herbert, G.L.,et al., Alfaxalone for total intravenous anaesthesia in dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy: a comparison of premedication with acepromazine or dexmedetomidine. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia, 2012. -
  • Amengual, M.,et al., An evaluation of anaesthetic induction in healthy dogs using rapid intravenous injection of propofol or alfaxalone.Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia, 2012 -
  • Metcalfe, S., et al. A multi-centre clinical trial evaluating the efficacy and safety of Alfaxan® administered to bitches for induction of anaesthesia prior to caesarean sectionin 33 rd World Small Animal Congress.2008. Dublin, Ireland: WSAVA/FECAVA -
  • O’Hagan, B., et al., Clinical evaluation of alfaxalone as an anaesthetic induction agent in dogs less than 12 weeks of age.Australian Veterinary Journal, 2012. 90(9): p. 346-50 -
  • O’Hagan, B., et al., Clinical evaluation of alfaxalone as an anaesthetic induction agent in cats less than 12 weeks of age.Australian Veterinary Journal, 2012. 90(10): p. 395-401 -
  • Jurox, NADA 141-342 Alfaxan® Intravenous injectable anesthetic for use in cats and dogs. Product Insert.2012, USFDA -
  • Heit, M.C., et al. Cardiovascular and respiratory safety of Alfaxan®CD RTU in cats premedicated with acepromazine, medetomidine, midazolam or butorphanol.in ACVIM.2004 -
  • Pasloske, K., et al., Plasma pharmacokinetics of alfaxalone in both premedicated and unpremedicated Greyhound dogs after single, intravenous administration of Alfaxan® at a clinical dose.Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics, 2009. 32: p. 510-513. -
  • Ambros B, Duke-Novakovski T, Pasloske KS. Comparison of the anesthetic efficacy and cardiopulmonary effects of continuous rate infusions of alfaxalone-2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin and propofol in dogs. Am J Vet Res 2008;69:1391–8. -
  • Pasloske, K. and T. Whittem, JX9604.07-H004 A target animal safety study in cats after administration of Alfaxan® -CD RTU as single, repeated injections on days 0, 2, and 5 at dosages of 5, 15 or 25 mg/kg.2004, On File at Jurox
  • Whittem, T. and K. Pasloske, RD9604.03-H005 Eight day target animal safety study of intravenous Alfaxan® CD RTU in dogs administered every other day.2004, Jurox Pty Limited
  • Ferre, P.J.,et al., Plasma pharmacokinetics of alfaxalone in dogs after an intravenous bolus of Alfaxan®-CD RTU. Vet Anaesth Analg, 2006. 33(4): p. 229-36. -
  • Schnell, M., et al. Margin of safety of the anesthetic Alfaxan®CD RTU in dogs at 0,1,3 and 5X the intravenous dose of 2 mg/kg.in ACVIM. 2004 -
  • Heit, M.C., et al. Safety and efficacy of Alfaxan® CD RTU Administered once to cats subcutaneously at 10 mg/kg.in ACVIM. 2004 -
  • Muir, W., et al., Cardiorespiratory and anesthetic effects of clinical and supraclinical doses of alfaxalone in dogs.Vet Anaesth Analg, 2008. 35(6): p. 451-462. -
  • Muir, W.,et al., The cardiorespiratory and anesthetic effects of clinical and supraclinical doses of alfaxalone in cats.Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia, 2009. 36(1): p. 42-54. -
  • Pasloske, K.,et al. A multicentre clinical trial evaluating the efficacy and safety of Alfaxan® administered to cats for induction and maintenance of anaesthesia.in British Small Animal Veterinary Association Congress. 2007. Birmingham, UK. -
  • Pasloske, K., et al. A multicentre clinical trial evaluating the efficacy and safety of Alfaxan ® -CD RTU administered to dogs for induction and maintenance of anaesthesia.in British Small Animal Veterinary Association Congress. 2005. Birmingham, UK -
  • APVMA, Alfaxan ® Anaesthetic Injection Australian Product Insert Leaflet.2010 -
  • Jurox and Ricera, An in vitro study evaluating the binding of alfaxalone to various nuclear receptors (Ricerca Study No. AA94464).Records in House, 2010
Analgesia & General Anaesthesia References
  • A comparison of anaesthetic recoveries in cats following induction with either alfaxalone or ketamine and diazepam, Gieseg et al, 2013, NZVJ -
  • Vettorato E. Prolonged intravenous infusion of alfaxalone in a cat. Vet Anaesth Analg 09/13;40:551–2. -
  • Seymour C, Duke-Novakovski T, British Small Animal Veterinary Association. BSAVA manual of canine and feline anaesthesia and analgesia. Gloucester, England: British Small Animal Veterinary Association; 2007. -
  • O’Hagan, B.J. and S.R. Raidal, Surgical removal of retrobulbar hemangioma in a goldfish (Carassius auratus).Vet Clin North Am Exot Anim Pract, 2006. 9(3): p. 729-33. -
  • NHMRC, NHMRC Guideline to promote well being of animals for scientific purposes.2008. -
  • McMillan, W. and E.A. Leece, Immersion and branchial/transcutaneous irrigation anaesthesia with alfaxalone in a Mexican axolotl.Vet Anaesth Analg, 2011. 38: p. 619-623 -
  • Bertelsen, M.F. and C.D. Sauer, Alfaxalone anaesthesia in the green iguana (Iguana iguana). Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia, 2011. 38(5): p. 461-466. -
  • Brodbelt, D.C.,et al., The risk of death: the confidential enquiry into perioperative small animal fatalities.Vet Anaesth Analg, 2008. 35(5): p. 365-73 -
  • Glasgow University short form composite measure pain score (CMPS-SF). 2012 -
  • Whittem, T., et al., The pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of alfaxalone in cats after single and multiple intravenous administration of Alfaxan®at clinical and supraclinical doses. J Vet Pharmacol Ther, 2008. 31(6): p. 571-9 -
  • Dugdale, A.H.A., Veterinary Anaesthesia: Principles to Practice.2010: Wiley-Blackwell.
  • Weingart, S.D. and R.M. Levitan, Preoxygenation and Prevention of Desaturation During Emergency Airway Management.Annals of emergency medicine, 2012. 59(3): p. 165-175.e1 -
  • Zaki, S., K. Ticehurst, and Y. Miyaki, Clinical evaluation of Alfaxan®-CD(R) as an intravenous anaesthetic in young cats.Aust Vet J, 2009. 87(3): p. 82-7 -
  • Psatha, E., et al., Clinical efficacy and cardiorespiratory effects of alfaxalone, or diazepam/fentanyl for induction of anaesthesia in dogs that are a poor anaesthetic risk.Vet Anaesth Analg, 2011. 38: p. 24-36. -
  • Murison, P.J. and Martinez Taboada, F. Effect of propofol and alfaxalone on pain after ovariohysterectomy in cats Vet Rec., 2010. 166(11): p. 334-335 -
  • Mathis, A., et al., Comparison of quality of recovery from anaesthesia in cats induced with propofol or alfaxalone.Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia, 2012. 39(3): p. 282-290 -
  • Maddern, K., et al., Alfaxalone induction dose following administration of medetomidine and butorphanol in the dog. Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia, 2010. 37(1): p. 7-13. -
  • ASA Physical Status Classification System,Amer Soc Anesth. -
  • Belelli, D. and J.J. Lambert, Neurosteroids: endogenous regulators of the GABA(A) receptor.Nat Rev Neurosci, 2005. 6(7): p. 565-575. -
  • Roth, F.C. and A. Draguhn, GABA Metabolism and Transport: Effects on Synaptic Efficacy.Neural Plasticity, 2012. 2012. -
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