Caesarean Sections. Part 1: Physiology of the Pregnant Patient
In this first of four parts discussing anaesthesia for the Caesarean section we examine the anaesthesia-relevant physiological changes that occur during pregnancy.Read Article
Paper summaries: IM alfaxalone in dogs
To complement the main editorial by Matt Gurney we examine some of the publications referenced in his article on the intramuscular use of alfaxalone in dogsRead Article
Intramuscular use of alfaxalone in dogs: Why? When? How?
Alfaxalone (Alfaxan Multidose) is regularly administered intravenous induction agent in dogs, but what are the options if we cannot immediately gain venous access and need to sedate the dog? Matt Gurney, President of the European College of Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia, considers the current literature and discusses why, when and how alfaxalone may be administered to the dog intramuscularly.Read Article
Intramuscular use of alfaxalone in cats: Why? When? How?
We are all aware that occasionally it is necessary to administer sadation, and even general anaesthesia, to cats via the intramuscular route. In this article Matt Gurney, RCVS and European specialist in Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia, discusses some useful protocols for the IM administration of alfaxalone in cats, and describes when and why this drug may prove valuable.Read Article
Paper summaries: IM alfaxalone in cats
To complement the main editorial by Matt Gurney we examine some of the publications referenced in his article on the intramuscular use of alfaxalone in catsRead Article
Anaesthetic recovery: How can we minimise complications?
Anaesthetic recovery is a high risk period for complications and death (Brodbelt et al, 2008). In this article Courtney Scales DipVN NCert(Anaesth) RVN discusses how we can reduce the potential risks and improve the recovery experience for our patients.Read Article
Paper summary: Nebulised adrenaline in the postoperative management of brachycephalic obstructive airway syndrome in a Pug
Laryngeal oedema is a potentially life-threatening complication of invasive BOAS surgery. In this case study by Ellis and Leece (2017) the use of nebulised adrenaline to successfully manage this condition is described.Read Article
Reducing anaesthetic risk in the perioperative period – a team approach
Sadly, complications can occur during the peri-anaesthetic period with potentially detrimental effects on the patient. In this article Lou Northway, VNCertECC NCert(Anaesth) RVN, examines the most common causes of adverse peri-anaesthetic events and the steps that can be taken to reduce their incidence.Read Article
Paper summary: Effects of hypothermia on recovery from general anaesthesia in the dog.
This paper by Pottie et al (2007) examines the effects of hypothermia on recovery from general anaesthesia in the dog.Read Article
How can we calm and sedate the uncooperative kitty?
Uncooperative, aggressive or stressed cats are commonly encountered in the veterinary clinic. This article examines the aims for calming these patients, the importance of planning and considers selected sedative protocols.Read Article
Paper summary: Intramuscular butorphanol/alfaxalone combination for sedation of cats prior to echocardiography
The sedation of cats prior to cardiac examination requires a drug protocol that has minimal effects on the cardiovascular system. This study examined a combination of butorphanol and alfaxalone administered intramuscularly on echocardiographic assessment and on cardiovascular function.Read Article
Anaesthesia: where can we maximise efficiency and save time?
Improving efficiency and “saving time” are key to increasing throughput in busy clinical practice, especially when the normal working environment has been disrupted, where there is an increased demand for services, or when surgical lists become overloaded. This article provides potential solutions for some common bottlenecks and inefficiencies during the anaesthetic process.Read Article
Paper summary: The effect of propofol or alfaxalone on post-induction heart rate in healthy dogs
The maintenance of heart rate and cardiac output are essential to ensure adequate organ perfusion. This study by Okushima et al examined the effects of alfaxalone versus propofol on heart rate at the time of induction of anaesthesia.Read Article
Paper summary: Effect of intravenous dose escalation with alfaxalone and propofol on the occurrence of apnoea in dogs.
Apnoea following induction of anaesthesia can result in both morbidity and mortality if not identified early and managed successfully. In this 2012 article by Keates and Whittem alfaxalone and propofol were administered to dogs at 1x, 2x, 5x, 10x and 20x multiples of the labelled dose to determine the incidence of apnoea and the respiratory safety profile of each drug.Read Article
Intravenous induction of anaesthesia in dogs, cats and pet rabbits.
In this article Karen Heskin, Veterinary Technical Manager for Jurox UK, and Carl Bradbrook, RCVS & European Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia Specialist and President of the Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists, discuss the three most commonly used intravenous induction agents for cats, dogs and pet rabbits in the UK. To complement this discussion we have created three useful summaries to download as quick reference guides for your clinical personnel.Read Article
ASA Classification and Patient Safety Checklists
As clinics and hospitals reduce routine treatments and move towards critical and emergency care during the COVID-19 crisis, to complement our previously published articles on ASA classification and the use of checklists in anaesthesia, we have created this short slide presentation to act as a useful summary.Read Article
Paper summary: Proportion of litters of purebred dogs born by Caesarean section.
It is recognised that brachycephalic dog breeds are more likely to experience dystocia and require Caesarean section. This study examined the influence of breed on the incidence of interventional surgery.Read Article
Caesarean section. Part 1: Physiology relevant to anaesthesia.
In this first of four parts discussing anaesthesia for the Caesarean section we examine the anaesthesia-relevant physiological changes that occur during pregnancy.Read Article
Under Pressure: Practical blood pressure assessment and management.
The monitoring of blood pressure under anaesthesia is critical for patient care. In this article Claire Roberts, RVN and owner of SynergyCPD, examines the physiology, monitoring and management of blood pressure in anaesthetised patients.Read Article
Cardiovascular stability with Alfaxan Multidose
Cardiovascular stability is a major feature of Alfaxan Multidose. In this article we examine the benefits for your patients and the supporting evidence.Read Article
Paper summary: Effect of lingual swab placement on pulse oximetery readings
This study by Mair et al (2016) examined what effect the placement of swabs of different thicknesses and colour would have on pulse oximetry readings.Read Article
Practical pulse oximetry for the Veterinary Nurse
Pulse oximetry is one of the most commonly performed monitoring procedures in veterinary anaesthesia. In this article Courtney Scales, RVN and owner of Anursethesia discusses the why and how we use pulse oximeters, the advantages and pitfalls, and how to manage abnormal readings.Read Article
Paper summary: Comparison of direct and oscillometric blood pressure assessment using a veterinary specific device
Blood pressure management requires accurate monitoring. In this summary of an article by Acierna et al (2013) we compare a veterinary specific oscillometric device to direct blood pressure measurement.Read Article
Having their best interests at HEART: Coronary collateral circulation in the rabbit, stress & the effects of alpha-2 agonists, phenothiazines and volatiles.
How extensive is the coronary collateral circulation in the rabbit and what are the effects of stress and drugs on the heart of this species?Read Article
Paper summary: Comparison of direct and Doppler arterial blood pressure measurements in rabbits during isoflurane anaesthesia.
How do Doppler and direct blood pressure measurement compare in the anaesthetised rabbit?Read Article
Co-induction of anaesthesia. Is there a clear advantage?
In this article Matt Gurney, RCVS/ECVS specialist in Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia, examines whether co-induction techniques are advantageous.Read Article
What are the benefits of slow administration of alfaxalone and does co-induction with alfaxalone/midazolam have any benefits in healthy dogs?
In this summary of a study by Miller et al (2019) we examine if there are any benefits to an alfaxalone/midazolam induction over alfaxalone alone in the healthy dog.Read Article
Peri-anaesthetic management of the gastric dilation and volvulus (GDV) patient
In this article Carl Bradbrook discusses the peri-ananesthetic management of the canine gastric dilatation and volvulus (GDV) patient.Read Article
Paper summary: Clinical efficacy and cardiorespiratory effects of alfaxalone, or diazepam/fentanyl for induction of anaesthesia in dogs that are a poor anaesthetic risk.
In this summary of a paper by Psatha et al (2011) we examine the clinical benefits of alfaxalone in high-risk patients when compared to the induction protocol of diazepam + fentanyl.Read Article
Getting to the HEART of the matter - considerations for anaesthetising the cardiac patient.
In this article Miranda discusses the challenges of anaesthetising patients with cardiac disease and how protocols can be modified to accommodate these patients.Read Article
Paper summary: How does buprenorphine compare to butorphanol for postoperative analgesia in cats?
A prospective multi-centre clinical trial comparing buprenorphine vs butorphanol for postoperative analgesia in cats.Read Article
Paper summary: Analgesic effects of maxillary and inferior alveolar nerve blocks in cats undergoing dental extractions.
With dental surgery one of the most commonly performed procedures in small animal practice, what benefits do dental nerve blocks provide in cats?Read Article
What should we consider when anaesthetising patients, including geriatrics, for dental procedures?
What should we consider when anaesthetising both adult and senior patients admitted for dental treatment?Read Article
Checklist for geriatric dental anaesthesia
This article summarises and combines "Anaesthesia for the geriatric patient" and "What should we consider when anaesthetising patients, including geriatrics, for dental procedures?" into a single checklist for anaesthesia for the geriatric dental patient. A downloadable summary is also available by following the link.Read Article
How do we recognise, assess and treat chronic pain in companion animals?
In this article Ian Self, Associate Professor in Veterinary Anaesthesia and Analgesia, School of Veterinary Medicine and Science, Nottingham, reflects on the recognition, assessment and management options for chronic pain in companion animalsRead Article
The physiology of acute and chronic pain.
In this article, which accompanies " How do we recognise, assess and treat chronic pain in companion animals?", Ian Self describes the physiology of acute and chronic painRead Article
What should we consider when anaesthetising the geriatric patient?
With an increasing number of anaesthetics being performed in older pets is there anything we should be aware of or do differently? In this article Carl Bradbrook examines the management of anaesthesia in geriatrics..Read Article
Paper summary: What effect does does rapid, high volume fluid therapy have on cardiovascular function?
In this summary of a paper by Valverde (2012) we examine the effects of high-volume, rapid fluid therapy on cardiovascular function and hematological values during isoflurane-induced hypotension in healthy dogs.Read Article
Paper summary: Pre-anaesthetic screening of geriatric dogs
In this summary of a paper by Joubert (2007) we examine the value of pre-anaesthetic screening in geriatric dogs and how the results influence the anaesthetic process.Read Article
Anaesthesia for Canine Cushing's disease: What should we assess and what should we monitor?
Cushing's disease (hyperadrenocorticism) is relatively common in the dog and this article discusses the appropriate pre-anaesthetic assessment we should perform and why careful monitoring is essential.Read Article
Paper summary: How frequently are intravenous catheters removed as a result of complications due to bacterial contamination?
In this summary of a paper by Ramos (2018) we examine the incidence of bacterial colonisation of intravenous catheters removed as a result of cannula complicationRead Article
What's the Point? Peripheral Intravenous Cannulation.
Peripheral venous cannulation is a common invasive procedure in small animals, but what are the best-practice insertion techniques and what can we do to avoid complications?Read Article
Paper summary: Heated intravenous fluids alone fail to prevent hypothermia in cats under general anaesthesia.
In this summary of a paper by Jourdan et al (2017) we examine the common practice of warming intravenous fluids and the effect on patient temperature.Read Article
Paper summary: The effect of omeprazole on oesophageal pH in dogs during anaesthesia
This summary of a publication by Panti et al., examines the effect of orally administered omeprazole on gastro-oesophageal reflux in the anaesthetised dog.Read Article
How does a syringe driver benefit your patients?
Syringe drivers are becoming increasingly commonplace in modern veterinary practice and are a useful tool for multiple applications. This article looks at the science behind constant rate infusions and the basics of syringe driver use.Read Article
Paper summary: Pet owner opinions about anaesthesia, pain and surgery in small animals
In this paper we explore perceptions and opinions of Canadian pet owners about anaesthesia, pain and surgery in small animals.Read Article
Achieving Safer Anaesthesia with ASA and Joanne Michou MA VetMB DipECVAA MRCVS
How can a Veterinary version of the ASA Physical Status Classification help you achieve safer anaesthesia? To find out how watch our webinar.Read Article
Paper summary: ASA classification and risk of anaesthetic related death in dogs and cats.
This scientific paper assessed whether the American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) Physical Status Classification correlated with the risk of anaesthetic death in dogs and cats.Read Article
New! Methadyne, Our New Methadone Now Available
This is our third product launch this year, and the latest addition to our anaesthesia and analgesia portfolio, Methadyne, contains 10mg/ml methadone as its active ingredient. It can be administered for analgesia of moderate to severe pain in dogs and cats, to provide neuroleptanalgesia, and as part of a patient’s premedication protocol prior to general anaesthesia.Read Article
A retrospective comparison of two analgesic strategies after uncomplicated tibial plateau levelling osteotomy in dogs.
In this review we summarise a publication by Bini (2018) examining two protocols for the administration of methadone following TPLO surgery in dogs.Read Article
Practical Acute Pain Assessment
In this summary of acute pain assessment, Carl Bradbrook examines why we should be monitoring patients for pain and looks at the commonly used scoring systems.Read Article
Alfaxan for the maintenance of anaesthesia: Peer reviewed clinical papers.
In this article we have identified the key clinical peer reviewed papers to support the use of Alfaxan for maintenance of Anaesthesia in Cats and Dogs.Read Article
Paper summary: Effect of benzodiazepines on the dose of alfaxalone needed for endotracheal intubation in healthy dogs
This paper examined whether a benzodiazepine, administered as a co-induction agent with alfaxalone, improved endotracheal intubation, and reduced the dose of alfaxalone, in the dogRead Article
Putting methadone in its place in your pain management.
In this article we examine why methadone could be considered the analgesic of choice for many of our patients and understand its importance in modern veterinary medicine. The article includes a link to a downloadable summary sheet.Read Article
Food for Thought: Pre-anaesthetic Fasting
In this article Karen examines why we fast our canine and feline patients prior to anaesthesia and what the current recommendations are. Karen also investigates why rabbits are different and should not be starved before anaesthesia.Read Article
Purr-fecting Pain Management
In this article summary we examine which of the two opioids, buprenorphine or butorphanol, provides the most appropriate analgesia following ovariohysterectomy in the cat.Read Article
Perspectives on Premeds - Phenothiazines: from Mental Health to Premedication
In this article from the Perspectives on Premeds series, Karen takes us through the properties and uses of phenothiazines in modern veterinary practice.Read Article
Methadone with Acepromazine - when is enough, enough?
This study looks at the effects of three methadone doses combined with acepromazine on sedation and some cardiopulmonary variables in dogs.Read Article
AceSedate®, Our New Acepromazine, Available Now.
We have extended our anaesthesia and analgesia portfolio with the launch of AceSedate®. Containing the tried and trusted, long-acting sedative agent acepromazine as its active ingredient, AceSedate can be used for the premedication, sedation and tranquilisation of cats and dogs.Read Article
Time: is 30 minutes long enough?
This recent study examined whether the application of EMLA cream, for 30 or 60 minutes, would be a useful tool to improve patient compliance prior to intravenous cannula placement in the veterinary clinical practice setting.Read Article
Caesarean Section Survival Guide. Part 2: Anaesthetic Protocol Selection & Peri-operative Considerations.
In this second instalment of the 2-part article, we explore premedication, induction, maintenance & monitoring, recovery and analgesia for the Caesarean section patient.Read Article
Buprenorphine: it’s not all static in rabbits
Opioids are well known for causing gastrointestinal stasis in mammalian species. This recent paper examined the effects of a single high dose of buprenorphine on the rabbit gastrointestinal tract using non-invasive imaging techniques.Read Article
Caesarean Section Survival Guide. Part 1: Physiology & Pre-anaesthetic Considerations.
In the first instalment of this 2-part review Karen examines the physiological changes that occur during pregnancy and how those adjustments can affect the selection of anaesthetic protocols for the increasingly common Caesarean section.Read Article
No leeway for the spay: A comparison between methadone and buprenorphine for perioperative analgesia in dogs undergoing ovariohysterectomy.
This recent paper compares post-operative pain scores and requirement for rescue analgesia following premedication with methadone or buprenorphine, in combination with acepromazine or medetomidine, in 80 bitches undergoing ovariohysterectomy.Read Article
Cardiac arrest - the human factor
Cardiac arrest in dogs and cats is, thankfully, relatively rare. However, when it does happen it can have devastating consequences for the animal, owner and the veterinary team. This study examined the common causalities leading up to a cardiac arrest with the aim of changing protocols to improve outcomes.Read Article
Are you Using Safety Checklists in your Practice?
In this article, Carl focuses on the benefits of introducing a safety checklist in practice to reduce patient morbidity, mortality and to improve communication between members of the veterinary team. The article contains links to the AVA safety checklist as well as a link to a customisable list that you can adapt to your practice needs.Read Article
The Big Chill - Temperature Management in Sedated and Anaesthetised Patients
The effects of hypothermia are very far reaching throughout the peri-anaesthetic process. In this article, James takes us through the interesting mechanisms of body cooling and warming, the clinical relevance of hypothermia and what we can do to prevent it.Read Article
Keeping the Finger on the Pulse - Nuances in CV Monitoring
All patients are exposed to the risks associated with general anaesthesia. Continuously monitoring anaesthetised patients maximises patients safety and wellbeing. In this article, Dan takes us through the common monitoring techniques that provide information about the cardiovascular status of your patient.Read Article
Effect of Maropitant on Isoflurane Requirements & Postoperative Nausea & Vomiting
Despite being widely recognized in humans, postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV), and the role of maropitant in reducing inhalational anaesthetic requirements have been poorly documented in dogs. This recent study evaluates PONV and isoflurane requirements after maropitant administration during routine ovariectomy in bitches.Read Article
New! Alfaxan® Multidose Now Available
We are happy to announce we have enhanced our anaesthesia and analgesia portfolio with the introduction of Alfaxan®Multidose for dogs, cats and pet rabbits.Read Article
Sevoflurane requirement in dogs premedicated with medetomidine and butorphanol
Little information is available about the effect that different doses of medetomidine and butorphanol may have when using sevoflurane for maintenance of anaesthesia in dogs. This recent study evaluates heart rate and median sevoflurane concentration required at different dose rates.Read Article
Capnography II - What happened to the elephants? A summary of abnormal traces
In this second article of the capnography series, James provides a guide to a few of the most common traces that you will encounter during surgery. Scroll to the end of the article to download a printable capnography cheatsheet.Read Article
Pain, what a Pain! (Part 2) – Practical Tips On How To Perform Dental Nerve Blocks In Companion Animal Practice
In this second article of the Pain, what a Pain! series, Dan takes us through the LRA techniques associated with dental and oral surgery. In this article, you will find practical tips and pictures on common dental nerve blocks as well as safety concerns to consider.Read Article
Peri-anaesthetic mortality and nonfatal gastrointestinal complications in pet rabbits
This recent retrospective study looks at the cases of 185 pet rabbits admitted for sedation or general anaesthetic and evaluates the incidence and risk factors contributing to peri-anaesthetic mortality and gastrointestinal complications.Read Article
Pain, what a Pain! How Locoregional Anaesthesia can Improve the Outcome and Welfare of Veterinary Patients (Part 1)
In this first article out of a series of two, Dan takes us through an introduction and practical tips for appropriate local anaesthesia delivery. Find out why these anaesthesia techniques, that are well recognised in human medicine, have seen an increase in popularity in veterinary medicine over the recent yearsRead Article
Perspectives on Premeds – Opioids
Perspectives on Premeds is a series of articles touching on different pharmacological, physiological and clinical aspects of pre-anaesthetic medication. This second article aims to provide a refresher on opioids.Read Article
Effects of Dexmedetomidine with Different Opioid Combinations in Dogs
Read the highlights of a recently published research paper that evaluates cardiorespiratory, sedative and antinociceptive effects of dexmedetomidine alone and in combination with morphine, methadone, meperidine, butorphanol, nalbuphine and tramadol.Read Article
Preoxygenation Study Highlights
This study evaluates the effectiveness of two methods of preoxygenation in healthy yet sedated dogs and the impact of these methods on time taken to reach a predetermined haemoglobin desaturation point (haemoglobin saturation (SpO2) of 90%) during an experimentally induced period of apnoea.Read Article
Capnography – Not Just a Load of Hot Air
Capnography is the measurement of inhaled and exhaled carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration. The graphical illustration of CO2 within respired gases versus times is known as the capnogram.Read Article
Perspectives on Premeds – Alpha-2 Agonists
Perspectives on Premeds is a series of articles touching on different pharmacological, physiological and clinical aspects of pre-anaesthetic medication. This first article aims to provide a refresher on α2 agonists.Read Article
Alfaxan - now licensed for use in pet rabbits
Jurox Animal Health is delighted to announce that Alfaxan is now licensed for cats, dogs and pet rabbits. This is an exciting advance and could change the way rabbits are anaesthetised in the U.K.Read Article