To view this site you must be a
veterinarian surgeon or nurse.
Are you a Veterinary Surgeon or Veterinary Nurse?

No

Sevoflurane requirement in dogs premedicated with medetomidine and butorphanol

Comparison of the cardiovascular and respiratory effects and sevoflurane requirement in dogs premedicated with two doses of medetomidine and butorphanol undergoing surgical sterilization.

D. Juodzente, A. Macas, B. Karveliene, S. Petkevicius1, V. Riskeviciene, Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences Vol. 21, No. 1 (2018), 101–110.

What did the research find?

A higher dose rate of medetomidine and butorphanol, when used as premedication, reduced inhaled sevoflurane requirements during routine surgical procedures. Both median sevoflurane concentration, and median heart rate (HR) values were significantly lower in dogs that received the higher dose drug combination (median HR: 77) than those that received the lower dose combination (median HR: 96).

How was it conducted?

30 client-owned dogs scheduled for routine neutering were included in the study. All patients were assessed to be of ASA I health status and were randomly assigned into the following groups:

  • Group 1: lower dose of medetomidine (0.014 mg/kg) and butorphanol (0.14 mg/kg)
  • Group 2: higher dose of medetomidine (0.024 mg/kg) and butorphanol (0.24 mg/kg)

In addition to the above, all dogs received a pre-operative dose of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory (i.e. 2mg/kg ketoprofen).

Patients received their dose of premedication intramuscularly and were then kept in a non-stimulating environment for 15 minutes. Induction, using propofol, was performed 20 minutes post premedication. All dogs were pre-oxygenated prior to intubation and maintained initially on 2% sevoflurane in pure oxygen.

Inhaled sevoflurane concentrations were then adjusted (1.6%-2.2%) according to the patient’s depth of anaesthesia. Anaesthetic management, anaesthetic depth and animal status was monitored continuously by an anaesthesiologist who was blinded to the premedication group.

Why is it important?

Premedication with alpha-2 adrenoreceptor agonists and opioids can improve the quality of anaesthesia and can reduce the required dose of volatile anaesthetic agents. However, little information is available about the effect that different dose rates of these premedicants may have when using sevoflurane for anaesthetic maintenance.

Sevoflurane is reported to cause dose-dependent hypotension, hypoventilation, impaired cardiac contractility and hypothermia (Mutoh et al. 1997), therefore its administration must be carefully titrated to avoid excessive anaesthetic depth. Due to the additive effects often observed, it is common practice in veterinary medicine to use multidrug protocols to decrease the overall required dose of volatile agent needed for anaesthetic maintenance. This may improve patient safety by minimising the negative cardiorespiratory effects volatile agents potentially elicit. 

This study is relevant because it compares the cardiorespiratory effects and sevoflurane requirements in dogs premedicated with different doses of routinely used premedicant agents (i.e. medetomidine and butorphanol) for routine surgical neutering. The paper provides vet practitioners with a convenient protocol for such surgical procedures in dogs.  

Link to the full article: http://journals.pan.pl/dlibra/...

Article by
Carol Atkinson
BVMS, MBA

Marketing Manager

Originally published: Wednesday, 4th July 2018

Keep reading... More news items that may interest you.

Perspectives on Premeds - Phenothiazines: from Mental Health to Premedication

In this article from the Perspectives on Premeds series, Karen takes us through the properties and uses of phenothiazines in modern veterinary practice.

Read On...

Methadone with Acepromazine - when is enough, enough?

This study looks at the effects of three methadone doses combined with acepromazine on sedation and some cardiopulmonary variables in dogs.

Read On...

AceSedate®, Our New Acepromazine, Available Now.

We have extended our anaesthesia and analgesia portfolio with the launch of AceSedate®. Containing the tried and trusted, long-acting sedative agent acepromazine as its active ingredient, AceSedate can be used for the premedication, sedation and tranquilisation of cats and dogs.

Read On...

Time: is 30 minutes long enough?

This recent study examined whether the application of EMLA cream, for 30 or 60 minutes, would be a useful tool to improve patient compliance prior to intravenous cannula placement in the veterinary clinical practice setting.

Read On...

Caesarean Section Survival Guide. Part 2: Anaesthetic Protocol Selection & Peri-operative Considerations.

In this second instalment of the 2-part article, we explore premedication, induction, maintenance & monitoring, recovery and analgesia for the Caesarean section patient.

Read On...

Buprenorphine: it’s not all static in rabbits

Opioids are well known for causing gastrointestinal stasis in mammalian species. This recent paper examined the effects of a single high dose of buprenorphine on the rabbit gastrointestinal tract using non-invasive imaging techniques.

Read On...

Caesarean Section Survival Guide. Part 1: Physiology & Pre-anaesthetic Considerations.

In the first instalment of this 2-part review Karen examines the physiological changes that occur during pregnancy and how those adjustments can affect the selection of anaesthetic protocols for the increasingly common Caesarean section.

Read On...

Cardiac arrest - the human factor

Cardiac arrest in dogs and cats is, thankfully, relatively rare. However, when it does happen it can have devastating consequences for the animal, owner and the veterinary team. This study examined the common causalities leading up to a cardiac arrest with the aim of changing protocols to improve outcomes.

Read On...

Are you Using Safety Checklists in your Practice?

In this article, Carl focuses on the benefits of introducing a safety checklist in practice to reduce patient morbidity, mortality and to improve communication between members of the veterinary team. The article contains links to the AVA safety checklist as well as a link to a customisable list that you can adapt to your practice needs. 

Read On...

The Big Chill - Temperature Management in Sedated and Anaesthetised Patients

The effects of hypothermia are very far reaching throughout the peri-anaesthetic process. In this article, James takes us through the interesting mechanisms of body cooling and warming, the clinical relevance of hypothermia and what we can do to prevent it.

Read On...

Keeping the Finger on the Pulse -  Nuances in CV Monitoring

All patients are exposed to the risks associated with general anaesthesia. Continuously monitoring anaesthetised patients maximises patients safety and wellbeing. In this article, Dan takes us through the common monitoring techniques that provide information about the cardiovascular status of your patient. 

Read On...

Effect of Maropitant on Isoflurane Requirements & Postoperative Nausea & Vomiting

Despite being widely recognized in humans, postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV), and the role of maropitant in reducing inhalational anaesthetic requirements have been poorly documented in dogs. This recent study evaluates PONV and isoflurane requirements after maropitant administration during routine ovariectomy in bitches.

Read On...

New! Alfaxan® Multidose Now Available

We are happy to announce we have enhanced our anaesthesia and analgesia portfolio with the introduction of Alfaxan®Multidose for dogs, cats and pet rabbits.

Read On...

Capnography II - What happened to the elephants? A summary of abnormal traces

In this second article of the capnography series, James provides a guide to a few of the most common traces that you will encounter during surgery. Scroll to the end of the article to download a printable capnography cheatsheet. 

Read On...

Pain, what a Pain! (Part 2) – Practical Tips On How To Perform Dental Nerve Blocks In Companion Animal Practice

In this second article of the Pain, what a Pain! series, Dan takes us through the LRA techniques associated with dental and oral surgery. In this article, you will find practical tips and pictures on common dental nerve blocks as well as safety concerns to consider.

Read On...

​Peri-anaesthetic mortality and nonfatal gastrointestinal complications in pet rabbits

This recent retrospective study looks at the cases of 185 pet rabbits admitted for sedation or general anaesthetic and evaluates the incidence and risk factors contributing to peri-anaesthetic mortality and gastrointestinal complications.

Read On...

Pain, what a Pain! How Locoregional Anaesthesia can Improve the Outcome and Welfare of Veterinary Patients (Part 1)

In this first article out of a series of two, Dan takes us through an introduction and practical tips for appropriate local anaesthesia delivery. Find out why these anaesthesia techniques, that are well recognised in human medicine, have seen an increase in popularity in veterinary medicine over the recent years

Read On...

Perspectives on Premeds – Opioids

Perspectives on Premeds is a series of articles touching on different pharmacological, physiological and clinical aspects of pre-anaesthetic medication. This second article aims to provide a refresher on opioids.

Read On...

Effects of Dexmedetomidine with Different Opioid Combinations in Dogs

Read the highlights of a recently published research paper that evaluates cardiorespiratory, sedative and antinociceptive effects of dexmedetomidine alone and in combination with morphine, methadone, meperidine, butorphanol, nalbuphine and tramadol. 

Read On...

Preoxygenation Study Highlights

This study evaluates the effectiveness of two methods of preoxygenation in healthy yet sedated dogs and the impact of these methods on time taken to reach a predetermined haemoglobin desaturation point (haemoglobin saturation (SpO2) of 90%) during an experimentally induced period of apnoea.

Read On...

Capnography – Not Just a Load of Hot Air

Capnography is the measurement of inhaled and exhaled carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration. The graphical illustration of CO2 within respired gases versus times is known as the capnogram.

Read On...

Perspectives on Premeds – Alpha-2 Agonists

Perspectives on Premeds is a series of articles touching on different pharmacological, physiological and clinical aspects of pre-anaesthetic medication. This first article aims to provide a refresher on α2 agonists.

Read On...

We are ‘injecting’ a bit of fun into BSAVA Congress!

We will be ‘injecting’ a bit of fun into BSAVA Congress on our stand (stand 702).

Read On...

Alfaxan - now licensed for use in pet rabbits

Jurox Animal Health is delighted to announce that Alfaxan is now licensed for cats, dogs and pet rabbits. This is an exciting advance and could change the way rabbits are anaesthetised in the U.K.

Read On...

Best Practice Rabbit Anaesthesia Roadshows

Jurox Announces eight country wide events on Best Practice Rabbit Anaesthesia

Read On...

Considerations in Rabbit Anaesthesia at the 2017 London Vet Show

Jurox to host talks on Considerations in Rabbit Anaesthesia at the 2017 London Vet Show.

Read On...

Vets needing more support for anaesthesia

Jurox research reveals that veterinary professionals have questions about their anaesthetic protocols

Read On...
Repeatable. Reliable. Relax.